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Military Consulting

The MA&D Operation has been working to build and maintain military readiness for over 19 years.  From our company’s beginning, we have worked with the US and other NATO military organizations to support military preparedness. We have provided a wide range in services to a wide range of customers — from basic research to development and engineering in technical areas including simulation, manpower, human factors, training, and test and evaluation services. Some of the innovative tools we have developed and applied have revolutionized how military analyses are conducted.

Below, we provide a sampling of our work in a variety of areas. If you would like more information on these or other projects, please contact us at

Some Examples of our work on Military Systems:

DD(X) Human Systems Integration Support

DD(X) is the centerpiece of a Family of Ships that will operate within the construct of the Surface Combatant Navy to deliver a vast range of war fighting capabilities that will maximize and revolutionize the combat capability of the Fleet.  Lockheed Martin and the MA&D Operation, as members of the DD(X) Design Agent industry team which also includes Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, and Bath Iron Works (General Dynamics), is tasked by the U.S. Navy to design a ship that will represent a greater than 50% reduction in crew size when compared to the ships currently being used.  Because of the MA&D Operation's experience in modeling and simulation combined with our experience in human factors engineering, we are playing a significant role in Human Systems Integration effort.  Our contributions are centered on the testing of crewing hypotheses and the validation of crew size estimates using detailed discrete event simulations for workload analysis. 

Vetronics Technology Integration (VTI) Effort

The MA&D Operation, with General Dynamics Robotic Systems (GDRS), General Dynamics Land Systems (GDLS), Applied Systems Intelligence (ASI), the U.S. Army Research Laboratory/Human Research & Engineering Directorate (ARL/HRED), Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) and the U.S. Army Tank-automotive and Armaments Command  (TACOM) are the members of the team for this effort. The Crew integration and Automation Testbed (CAT) Integrated Product Team (IPT) of the VTI project is responsible for designing and developing a soldier crewstation that is capable of controlling a direct fire vehicle as well as multiple unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs).
The MA&D Operation's role in the CAT IPT is twofold:
1) Lead the Soldier Machine Interface (SMI) design team to construct a design of the new CAT interface.
2) Create human performance models of crew members commanding robotic vehicles using both the new interface (above) and the existing Demo III interface.

Ground-based Mid-course Defense (GMD) Command and Control

The MA&D Operation is working on a revolutionary GMD system that is currently under development by the Missile Defense Organization. This will be a highly automated system with limited opportunity for the human to intervene in an ongoing action. The available opportunities will require very quick decisions and effective use of available information. Therefore, the development team must ensure the human’s interaction with the system is carefully orchestrated in order to maximize system performance.

The MA&D Operation is working on many related aspects of this interaction, including interface design and user training. In addition to these traditional efforts, the team has focused on applying innovative methods to define the roles and responsibilities of crew members. One method we are employing is a process simulation model that is capable of addressing the following questions:

  • How many people are needed on the crew?
  • How should they be assigned to tasks?
  • What types of decisions will each crew member be equipped and authorized to make?
  • Can the crew members meet their decision timelines?
  • Is the information they need usable and accessible?

Command, Control, and Communications - Techniques for the Reliable Assessment of Concept Execution (C3TRACE)

The purpose of C3TRACE is to evaluate the effects of different personnel architectures and information technology on system The objective of this effort was to develop a general-purpose Command and Control (C2) modeling environment that can be used for a number of different organizations, including new Future Combat System (FCS) concepts as they are defined.  The tool is called C3TRACE (Command, Control, and Communication Techniques for Reliable Assessment of Concept Execution). 

C3TRACE includes many of the functions, tasks, and logic from the Future Effects Coordination Cell (FECC) tool.  The purpose of C3TRACE is to evaluate the effects of different personnel architectures and information technology on system and human performance.  The tool the MA&D Operation developed contains four integrated software modules: the database, the C3TRACE graphical user interface, the Micro Saint runtime engine, and the data analysis tool.  A primary strength of this tool is that the modules support a flexible analysis approach. 

Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT) Development

The MA&D Operation developed computer-based tools, collectively named IMPRINT, for addressing the following issues during Army systems acquisition:

1.    System Performance and RAM Criterion Development Aid – The purpose of this product is to support the analyst in developing clear system performance requirements and conditions so that hardware/software designers will know what the system will have to do to achieve mission success.

2.    Manpower Constraints Estimation Aid – The purpose of this product is to provide crew size limits to hardware/software designers so that they do not design for unavailable numbers of operators and maintainers.

3.    Personnel Constraints Estimation Aid – The purpose of this product is to provide designers with a description of the significant soldier characteristics that explain and limit the probable operator and maintainer populations. 

4.    Manpower and Personnel Based System Evaluation Aid – The purpose of this product is to determine the number of soldiers per job required to operate and maintain system hardware.  This product predicts the operations and maintenance jobs required and the number of operations and maintenance personnel per job per system. 

These tools, now collectively known as IMPRINT, are widely perceived to represent a breakthrough in the application of a variety of modeling and simulation-based tools to applied manpower and personnel analysis.  In addition to a heavy simulation component, these tools include a variety of mathematical programming and optimization methods.  This work, started in the mid-1980s, represents an early attempt at developing tools to support what is now being widely referred to as simulation-based acquisition.

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